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Achieving 10 PPB, The State-of-The-Art for Phosphorus Removal
Author: Daniel P. Clark, Roger S. Copp, James A. Nissen
Date: 10/99
Presented at WEF 72nd Annual Conference and Exposition, New Orleans, Louisiana, October 9-13, 1999

Phosphorus removal technology has evolved primarily as a means of controlling nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants. In recent years, phosphorus control technology has been applied more and more frequently to stormwater flows to satisfy watershed discharge limits. Generally, however, most phosphorus control applications have had target concentrations of about 0.5 mg/l (500 ppb) or more. Recently, adverse impacts to the South Florida Everglades, due in part to increased phosphorus discharges from the Everglades Agricultural Area south of Lake Okeechobee, have caused researchers to look beyond what is typically required of conventional phosphorus removal technologies and to evaluate alternative technologies that may be capable of achieving much lower effluent phosphorus concentrations. This paper discusses activities that have occurred and technologies that have been identified to achieve total phosphorus concentrations as low as 10 ppb in water being discharged to the Everglades.