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Author      Title/Abstract      

Separate Stage Nitrifying Trickling Filters in Cold Climates
Author: Michael P. Lutz, Mark J. Tetreault, Denny S. Parker

Nitrifying trickling filters (NTFs) provide a simple and reliable alternative to conventional activated sludge systems. Performance of several full-scale and pilot-scale facilities demonstrates that the NTF process is suitable for cold climates with less sensitivity to low temperatures than the activated sludge process. The recent development of high-rate NTFs has led to lower capital costs for new facilities and improved cost effectiveness.